By Peter Schwarz
According to the UN refugee agency UNHCR, 1,500 Libyan refugees have
died while trying to cross the Mediterranean to Europe since the
beginning of the war against Libya in March. On August 4, German
newspaper "Süddeutsche Zeitung" reported a death toll of 1,820 since the
beginning of the year.
The victims are people from Libya and other African countries trying
to flee economic hardship, political persecution or escape the war,
risking their lives in the process. Penned into small, unseaworthy boats
by unscrupulous traffickers, they drown or die of thirst at sea.
The distance between the Italian island of Lampedusa, the goal of
most refugee boats, and Tunisia, the nearest point on the African coast,
is just 130 kilometers. The distance to the Libyan coast is about twice
This relatively small area of sea is currently filled by one of the
largest navies in the world. About 20 warships from 10 NATO countries,
including several aircraft and helicopter carriers, are supporting the
assault on Libya. They are equipped with radar and other advanced
technology and can easily detect any movement on the sea. The region is
also constantly monitored by NATO AWACS aircraft, which can detect
In addition, there are the boats and planes of the Italian border
police and the European border agency Frontex, which patrol the waters
between Lampedusa and the North African coast in order to detect and
send back refugee boats.
Vulnerable refugees therefore could have been easily detected and
rescued. The many deaths were entirely avoidable. They are the victims
of the failure to provide aid to those in distress—a criminal offence.
NATO forced them to flee with its war against Libya and when it
transpires that their escape route is a deadly trap, NATO has left them
to their fate.
NATO has not merely “overlooked” the refugees. It has also refused to provide shipwrecked refugees assistance when alerted.
Just last week, such a case came to light, in which the culpability
of NATO was so obvious that even the Italian government, which conducts
its own persecution of refugees, felt obliged to protest and demand an
The Italian Coast Guard on August 4 retrieved a wrecked,
20-meter-long wooden boat with nearly 300 refugees from the waters south
of the island of Lampedusa. The wreck had drifted at sea for a week
with a faulty engine. Conditions on the boat were appalling. According
to the survivors, 100 people had died of thirst and exhaustion, and had
been thrown overboard. The refugees themselves were severely dehydrated,
many in critical condition, and were flown to hospital on the Italian
As it turned out, the damaged boat had already been detected by a
Cypriot tug, which sent an SOS signal but then proceeded on course. The
Italian Coast Guard then alerted NATO. NATO refused to help the
refugees, however, although one of its ships was just 27 nautical miles
(50 km) from the stranded boat.
Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini has accused NATO of failing
to provide assistance and requested an investigation into the incident.
At the same time, he proposed extending the NATO mandate in such a way
that NATO is made responsible for the rescue of civil war refugees. This
is all smoke and mirrors, however.
Under current international law every civilian and military ship is bound under all circumstances to help the shipwrecked.
This is not the first time NATO has been accused of negligence. At
the end of March NATO ships are alleged to have ignored distress calls
from a damaged refugee boat from Libya. A military helicopter spotted
the boat but merely tossed the victims water bottles and crackers. The
refugees waited in vain for rescue.
According to the British Guardian newspaper an aircraft carrier in
the vicinity also failed to respond. In the end, 61 people died of
The NATO operation against Libya bears the name “Unified Protector”
and is officially justified as a mission aimed at the “protection of
civilians” from attacks by the Libyan government. If any further proof
were necessary, the fate of Mediterranean refugees delivers the final
blow to this cynical excuse for an imperialist war. The life of refugees
and civilians is the least of the priorities of NATO.
European governments also have no interest in helping the refugees.
It would be easy to equip ships to track down and rescue the refugees in
the Mediterranean, and such an operation would cost only a fraction of
the daily costs of the Libyan war. This is politically undesirable,
however, with EU countries fearful of an increase of refugees. The
entire European refugee policy is aimed at deterrence.